In mid-17th century Luxembourg was a Duchy within the Southern Spanish Netherlands. It was overseen by a government in Brussels. Although the Thirty Years War ended in 1648, the conflict continued in the Duchy of Luxembourg because France did not make peace with Spain. In 1649, French troops looted and burned down Luxembourgish villages and devastated the agricultural land. Despite these desperate conditions prevailing in Luxembourg, the Brussels government pressured Luxembourgers to provide money to finance the war effort. Almost half of the population of the Duchy perished between 1618 and 1659 when the Treaty of the Pyrenees ended the conflict. In mid-17h century, the population of the City of Luxembourg was about 2,600. Of these, 1,400 were local people. The remainder was mercenaries and their families representing the King of Spain who wished to ensure control of the area. The representatives of Spain were living in the homes of the local people.
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